What is the philosophy?

Discipline related to issues of how to live (ethics); what kind of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as true knowledge (epistemology); What are the correct principles of reasoning (logic)? Wikipedia

Some definitions

Investigation of the nature, causes or principles of reality, knowledge or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods (American Heritage Dictionary).

The study of the ultimate nature of existence, reality, knowledge and goodness, as can be discovered by human reasoning (Penguin English Dictionary).

Rational inquiry about questions about existence and knowledge and ethics (WordNet).

The search for knowledge and truth, in particular about the nature of man and his behavior and beliefs (Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary).

Rational and critical research of the basic principles (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia).

The study of the most general and abstract characteristics of the world, the fundamentals of human knowledge and the evaluation of human behavior (The Philosophy Pages).

If we look at the definitions, we can find that the most underlying principle of philosophy is questioning. Questioning what life is? How to live What kind of things exist and what are their natures? What are the correct principles of reasoning? What are the principles of reality, knowledge or values?

The goal of philosophy is to find answers or solutions to questions or problems by applying the principles of reasoning. In short, look for knowledge and truth. Research does not necessarily lead to finding the truth. However, the process used to find the truth is more important. History tells us that the wisdom of humans (the body of knowledge and experience that develops in a specific society or period) has changed and has constantly changed. Humans are looking for wisdom (the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and understanding)

Blind beliefs are the biggest obstacles that stop our thinking process. Philosophers question these blind beliefs, or rather question each belief. They are skeptical of everything. In fact, it is one of the philosophical methods (methodical doubt) that they use to find the truth. Philosophy begins with a simple doubt about accepted beliefs. They apply methodical doubt and knowledge to prove the functional, dysfunctional or destructive nature of an accepted and dominant belief in a society. Wait a moment. We have a problem that must be solved first. When we say "knowledge," this does not necessarily lead us to the truth of the conclusion they reach. The existing knowledge is not complete. Therefore, there is the possibility of an error of conclusion. A conclusion may be valid, but it is not necessarily a truth. With the introduction of an additional premise or the elimination of an existing premise, the nature of the conclusion will undergo a change.


Other common barriers to logical and critical thinking are a) confirmation bias, b) framing effects, c) heuristic, and d) common errors such as relevance errors, red herring error, Strawman's error, Ad Hominem's error , the error. appeal (to the authority), composition error, division error, ambiguity, appeal to popularity, appeal to tradition, appeal to ignorance, appeal to emotion, beg the question, false dilemma, point decision error, error of sliding slope, hasty generalizations, erroneous analogies and error error. And we can add the two formal errors a) affirming the consequence, b) denying the antecedent.

We humans make mistakes. It is often said that the error is human nature. Having known the innumerable errors of logical arguments, we have developed certain methods or models to avoid such errors. Philosophical methods are our set of tools that, when used, reduce our mistakes.